Pallas’s Sandgrouse/Syrrhaptes paradoxus
L 27-32 cm (tail projections of ad. 4-11). Breeds on Asian steppes. Rare and irregular vagrant in W Europe (in Britain most recently 1990), at times in minor invasions which can lead to breeding (e.g. 1888-89). - Black belly patch, rather pale wings above and below. male told from similar Spotted Sandgrouse by having mantle to rump heavily barred black while upperwing-coverts are uniform in colour. Diagnostic needle-like pointed outer primaries rarely seen in the field. female has more black spots on crown, nape and wing-coverts than male.